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:: Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2016) ::
شهر پایدار 2016, 2(4): 71-90 Back to browse issues page
Assessment of the sustainable city on view of family and pregnant women friendly city (Case study: district 19 Tehran)
Zohreh Fanni Dr *
Shahid Beheshti University , ), z-fanni@sbu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2254 Views)

Extended Abstract


 Today, the subject of promotion safety and security of people in urban public spaces has become a necessity in urban development program. It has expected that these spaces can always possible and facilitate the social vitality, presence, activities and rights of different groups. The necessity of the presence of women in public space, not only for its needs but also from the perspective of civil society and ethics, requires a pluralistic society with the approach of family authenticity in Islamic philosophy. In this study, with emphasis on the necessity presence, activity and rights of women, especially pregnant women, has tried to evaluate indexes of family-friendly city (FFC), to be surveyed the desirability of urban areas for the presence of pregnant women. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate appropriate urban spaces for the physical and psychological needs of pregnant women and its research method has been descriptive - analytical and the ways of data collection were the library and field studies. Therefore, this exploratory study seeks to analyze the social presence of these groups in the city and the psychological and physical needs in district 19 in Tehran. This research, with emphasis on the rights and problems of female presences in the urban public spaces, has drown the following questions: What are problems in the public spaces include street furniture, sidewalks and traffic in Tehran's fleet for pregnant women (their physical needs)? How are meeting the psychological, social and cultural needs and rights of pregnant women in District 19 of Tehran, through the creation of infrastructure and municipal services (education, health, sports, entertainment and so forth)? The main object of this exploratory study was to analyze the social presence of these groups in the city and the psychological and physical needs in district 19 in Tehran.

Theoretical bases

Sustainable city, as a city without gender preferences or Family Friendly City (FFC): sustainable city theory that has emerged from the theory of sustainable development, emphasize on the comprehensive, livable and healthy city for all human groups. All people, regardless of gender or age, benefit the right conditions of living and activity. The main indicators of (FFC), especially friendly for pregnant women include: suitable housing for living family members and pregnant women; proper traffic system with special places for breastfeeding babies; the safe and healthy environments for children and babies' maintenance; social -economic security, and gender justice. So, cities without these features are unsustainable. 2) Feminism or theory protect of women: The essence of the protection of women or feminist theory is founded on the redefinition of women's identity that sometimes it emphasize on the equality between men and women and sometimes on inherent characteristics of women as full human resources.


 The dominant approach in this exploratory study is descriptive-analytic. The study area is the 19th District Tehran. Collecting data has done through library and field studies (using questionnaires and in-depth interview). Because of the restrictions for presence on the public spaces, the population of pregnant women for interview were very little in the community. Therefore, I could find just 54 of the pregnant women and with infants living in areas 1 and 3 District 19. The sampling method was judgmental too. After the interview, the outputs of the questionnaire and collected information has been analyzed by using descriptive statistics and SPSS software. It was obtained some parameters, such as frequency and cumulative percentage due to the variety of questions and test different indicators. The reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha coefficient that represents the amount obtained 79/0 high reliability and it is refelecting the optimal questionnaire.

Results and dDiscussion

 The results show that study area is now in transformation from rural to urban situation and so it experiencing much difference in the areas of physical, social, cultural, economic, not only in comparison with Tehran but also in other parts of their neighborhood. Therefore, based on the observations, questionnaires and interviews, you know, women of district have different needs. Pregnant women in the Western areas of the region, are suffering the lack of cultural and social centers (consultancy), health centers and women's Eastern neighborhoods are unhappy from lack of suit urban facilities to meet their needs out of home such as asphalt streets, wide waterways, lack of security, inefficiency of transportation lines and overcrowding of buses.

In addition, the physical conditions of the facilities of the region are not meeting the needs of pregnant women physically and mentally and they are unhappy by traffic conditions, the presence and activities outside the home. The samples also believe that the physical conditions of their neighborhoods in terms of body and mental health are very poor to moderate and unsuitable for family life. As well as municipal management district 19 is not effective performance in meeting the basic needs of pregnant women in public spaces. While it through estimating the minimum requirements with respect to its existing facilities can have a significant contribution in improving the quality of life for women.


 According to library studies, observations and discussions with a number of managers and experts, who are working in the 19 District Municipality, this area is now in transition period from rural to urban situation; it can see much physical, social, cultural and economic differences between its areas, not only with other areas of Tehran but also between its neighborhoods. Also, questionnaire results and interviews with pregnants showed that women in the different neighborhood area has different needs. Women in the Western nighborhoods, are suffering the lack of cultural and social centers (consultancy), health centers and women's Eastern neighborhoods are facing to lack of facilities tailored to the needs of the urban poor such as  uncomfortable walk streets, wide waterways, lack of social security, lack of transportation lines and overcrowding of buses. Analysis of output tables showed that pregnant women in 19 District of Tehran are not access a good state to provide their physical, psychological and social needs. It is actually reflects the dire situation of urban public spaces and services.

Keywords: Family friendly city, pregnant women, public places, District 19, Tehran
Full-Text [PDF 285 kb]   (631 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2015/08/28 | Accepted: 2015/12/29 | Published: 2016/02/9
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Fanni Z. Assessment of the sustainable city on view of family and pregnant women friendly city (Case study: district 19 Tehran). شهر پایدار. 2016; 2 (4) :71-90
URL: http://jscity.ir/article-1-212-en.html

Volume 2, Issue 4 (Winter 2016) Back to browse issues page
نشریه شهر پایدار Journal of Sustainable City
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